Hreathinc

travels in the opposite direction, first from the cells of the body to the heart in the systemic circulation, and then from the heart to the lungs in the pulmonary circulation (fig. 2.1 and chapter 8).

Everything about the respiratory system is accessory to the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Airways lead from the nose and mouth into the lungs (fig. 2.2). Air is pulled backward in the nose past the hard and soft palates, where it makes a 90° turn and enters a funnel-shaped region, top: the pulmonary circulation ot blood to and from the lungs atmosphere: oxygen in -carbon dioxide out the pulmonary artery carries blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs the vena cava carries blood that is high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen from the capillary beds of the body back to the right atrium of the heart; this is the systemic "venous return"

atmosphere: oxygen in -carbon dioxide out

cells of the body carbon dioxide

Figure 2.1. Cardio-respiratory system. As indicated by the arrows, oxygen is transported from the atmosphere to the cells of the body: from airways to lungs to the pulmonary circulation, heart, and finally to the systemic circulation. Carbon dioxide is transported in the other direction: from the tells to the systemic circulation, heart, pulmonary circulation, lungs, airways, and atmosphere (Dodd).

carbon dioxide bottom: the systemic circulation of blood to and from the body as a whole the pulmonary capillaries lie in intimate apposition to the alveoli; they transport carbon dioxide from the blood into the alveoli and oxygen from the alveoli into the blood the pulmonary vein carries blood high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart for the systemic circulation, the aorta carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the body as a whole cells of the body the capillaries ol the systemic circulation lie in close apposition to the cells of the body; they transport oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide away from them

Figure 2.1. Cardio-respiratory system. As indicated by the arrows, oxygen is transported from the atmosphere to the cells of the body: from airways to lungs to the pulmonary circulation, heart, and finally to the systemic circulation. Carbon dioxide is transported in the other direction: from the tells to the systemic circulation, heart, pulmonary circulation, lungs, airways, and atmosphere (Dodd).

70 ANATom OF HATHA YOGA

the pharynx. From there it continues downward into the larynx, which is the organ for phonation and whose vocal cords vibrate to create sound. Below the larynx air passes into the trachea, the right and left primary bronchi, and then into the two lungs, each of which contains 10 bronchopulmonary segments that arc served individually by secondary bronchi. The secondaiy bronchi in turn divide into tertiary bronchi and smaller subdivisions (bronchioles) that collectively compose the bronchial tree (fig. 2.3). The terminal bronchioles of the bronchial tree in turn open into the tiny alveoli, giving a microscopic view nasal conchae (turbinate bones covered by mucus membranes):

(air passages beneath conchae):

laryngopharynx oropharynx spinous proo of second cervical vertebra (C2)

verbebra! body. C5

intervertebral disk between C6 and C7

Cervical Spine Larynx

tongue entrance to larynx superior, middle, and inferior esophagus (pathway for food between oropharynx and stomach epiglottis trachea (pathway for air between larynx and primary bronchi cord on left side of larynx, and glottis laryngopharynx vertebral canal (tube housing spinal cord)

esophagus (pathway for food between oropharynx and stomach nasal conchae (turbinate bones covered by mucus membranes):

inferior base of cranial cavity nasopharynx oropharynx spinous proo of second cervical vertebra (C2)

palate hard, soft palatine tonsil tongue verbebra! body. C5

epiglottis intervertebral disk between C6 and C7

entrance to larynx trachea (pathway for air between larynx and primary bronchi cord on left side of larynx, and glottis nasal meatuses

(air passages beneath conchae):

superior, middle, and inferior

Figure 2.2. Nearly mid-sagittal cut (just to the left of the nasal septum) showing the left half of the head and neck, and revealing the crossing passageways for food (solid line from the oral cavity into the esophagus) and air (dashed lines from the nasal passages into Ihe trachea), (from Sappey).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Newbies Guide To Yoga

The Newbies Guide To Yoga

Yoga is extensively know as a form of exercise that stretches and strengthens the body through various poses know as ASANA. For other people yoga is the realization of inner self satisfaction. For other it is a religion that the believe and must follow. Learn more within this guide by downloading today.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment