postenor longitudinal ligament ligamentum nuchae attas (cl)
anterior longitudinal ligament fourth lumbar vertebra (L4): spinous superior articular process, transverse process
Spinous process of C7
supraspinous i'gament spinous process of T1 (vertebra prominens)
vertebral body of T1
figure 4 .13. Side views (from the right) of the ligaments associated with the cervical portion of the vertebral column (a) and with the lumbar region (b). (from Morris).
can see elements of such a plan within the human body The smallest and shortest muscles of the spine act between adjacent vertebrae. The middlt layer of muscles—the deep back muscles—operates between the torso anc the lower extremities to hold us upright. To see them (fig. 4.14 and 5.5) yoi would have to remove the upper extremities, including the third am outermost layer of muscles that act from the torso to manipulate the scapula' and arms (figs. 8.8-14).
The main component of the middle layer is the erector spinae, whic runs between the neck and the pelvis on either side of the spinous processe This muscle erects or extends the spine, as its name implies; it als restricts forward bending, aids side bending, and influences twisting of th torso in conjunction with the abdominal muscles. And in static postur. such as sitting upright in meditative sitting postures, it acts as an extonsi ligament, holding the spine straight with a mild isometric effort (chapt 10). Our main concern here is how the deep back muscles operate either 1 facilitate or restrict standing postures.
transverse process of T1
transverse process of L1
serrispinalis capitis strap muscles of the neck erector spinae internal abdominal oblique ilium acetabulum of hip joint transverse process of T1
serrispinalis capitis strap muscles of the neck erector spinae internal abdominal oblique ilium acetabulum of hip joint ischial tuberosity transverse process of L1
Figure 4.14. Deep muscles of the back and neck (right side). Upper and lower extremities have been removed in their entirety
(from Morris). coccyx sacrum
1 STANDING POSTt NTS 22/
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