Calcium

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Most vegetarians get a similar amount of calcium in their diet as meat eaters do, but vegans (who don't eat dairy products) tend to get less, so they might consider taking a supplement to make up the difference. The recommended daily intake of calcium for most men and women is 1,000 mg. A cup of plain low-fat yogurt has roughly 448 mg; a cup of nonfat milk has 316 mg. One cup of steamed collard greens has 266 mg, and a cup of calcium-fortified orange juice has 300 mg. Look for calcium-fortified soymilk and tofu, too. As for supplements, be aware that, unless specified, many multivitamins provide only a small amount of calcium.

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS Omega-3 fatty acids are important for cardiovascular, eye, and brain health. But if you don't eat fish, your diet may be low in two important ones, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

The World Health Organization recommends 0.3 to 0.5 grams daily of both for men and women. Another important omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA, is abundant in plant sources such as flaxseed, walnuts, soy, and canola oil. Aim for 1 to 2 grams per day. (The body can manufacture EPA and DHA from vegetarian ALA sources, although you'll need a lot more.)

Algae supplements provide some DHA, and so do eggs from hens fed an omega-3-rich diet. Udo's Oil DHA 3-6-9 Blend provides a balance of vegetarian omega-3 and omega-6 oils, with DHA from farmed red-brown algae. The good news is that while vegetarians who don't eat fish may miss out on the heart-healthy benefits of EPA, their cardiovascular health is on average superior to that of meat eaters.

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