The Muscular Stabilizers of the Shoulder

The shape of the bones and thick ligaments stabilize the hip. Musc les stabilize the shoulder. The primary shoulder stabilizer is the rotator cuff, the secondary stabilizers are the triceps and biceps. Yoga postures such as arm balances and inversions strengthen these muscles, balancing stability and mobility in the joint.

The Key Poses Yoga
biceps (long head) triceps (long head)

Rotator Cuff (stabilizing shoulder joint)

Muscular Rotation

Biceps and Triceps (stabilizing shoulder joint)

Spine Ligaments

LUMBOSACRAL SPINE

VERTEBRAL UNIT

The vertebral unit is comprised of two adjacent vertebral bodies and the intervertebral disc. Movement between the vertebrae is possible in several planes (including small amounts of rotation, flexion and extension). The combination of motion across multiple vertebral units culminates in spinal movement.

Spinous Process Muscle

sacrum anterior longitudinal ligament interspinous ligament spinous process tranverse process spinalis muscle transversalis muscle sacrum anterior longitudinal ligament interspinous ligament spinous process tranverse process spinalis muscle transversalis muscle

Neural Foramina
neural foramina
Muscle Intervert Braux
vertebral body
intervertebral disc

Ligaments attach bone to bone and also serve as attachments for certain muscles. Below are three such ligaments that connect the upper body and trunk with the lower body.

Ilioinguinal Ligament

lumbosacral fascia ilioinguinal ligament

Trunk (anterior) Trunk (posterior)

Knee Ligaments

The patellar tendon connects the quadriceps muscle to the tibia for extension of the knee. The collateral ligaments limit side to side motion of the knee and maintain its function as a hinge joint. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments limit anterior and posterior translation of the tibia on the femur (respectively). The menisci deepen and stabilize the knee joint. The interosseous membrane stabilizes the bones of the lower leg.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

ligament

Cruciate And Menisci

patellar tendon lateral collateral ligament anterior cruciate ligament posterior cruciate ligament menisci interosseous membrane medial collateral ligament patellar tendon lateral collateral ligament anterior cruciate ligament posterior cruciate ligament menisci medial collateral ligament

Knee (anterior)

interosseous membrane ligament

Muscles and Tendons

Muscles

Muscle Agonist Antagonist Hip

The quadriceps are the agonists that contract to extend the knees. The hamstrings are the antagonists stretched by this action.

The synergists of psoas assist in flexing the hip.

The quadriceps are the agonists that contract to extend the knees. The hamstrings are the antagonists stretched by this action.

The synergists of psoas assist in flexing the hip.

Movements are determined by the varying forces acting across the joints. These forces are produced by the muscles, and their effects on body position are determined by the muscles' shape, origin (the attachment of the muscle to a bone at the more fixed or proximal end), and insertion (the attachment of the muscle to a bone at the end toward the part to be moved, or the more distal end).

Origin

Proximal attachment of the muscle to a bone.

Insertion

Distal attachment of the muscle to a bone.

Agonist, or prime mover The muscle that contracts to produce a certain action about a joint. For example, the hamstrings are agonists when you flex your knee.

Antagonist

A muscle that relaxes while the agonist contracts. The antagonist produces the opposite action about a joint. For example, the quadriceps (at the front of the thigh) is the antagonist to the hamstrings when you flex your knee. When you extend your knee, the quadriceps is the agonist and the hamstrings the antagonists.

Synergist

A muscle that assists and fine-tunes the action of the agonist and can be used to produce the same action, although generally not as efficiently.

The origin of the lectus femoris is the anterior superior iliac spine. The insertion is the patella.

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