Few Simple Helps To Pronunciation

a almost like u in but; s like sh in ship;

e like a in name; ch like ch in rich;

No attempt is made to give the finer distinctions of Sanskrit pronunciation, as a thorough knowledge of the language would be needed to grasp them.

In this glossary are to be found words commonly used in books and pamphlets on Vedanta, as well as those that are employed in this volume.^

* [Suffice to say that Sanskrit makes a number of phonetic distinctions which are not made in English, and hence in writing Sanskrit words in transliteration it is usual to employ stress and diacritical marks (bars over letters, dots below, etc.) to represent these. ri in the printed text has been generally replaced by r; it represents the short cerebral vowel which has no real English equivalent, ri being only a rough approximation to its sound. For a basic introduction to Sanskrit orthography and phonetics, see Charles Wilkner, A practical Sanskrit introductory, online at ftp://ftp.nac.ac.za/wilkner/ — T.S.] t [i.e. in both Raja Yoga and Bhakti Yoga. — T.S.]


Abhidhya . Abhigata .

Abhimana .

Adhidaivika. Adhikari . Aditi . . Aditya . . Adityas . . Adharma . Adrogha . Adrogha-Vak

Advaitin . Adhyasa .



Bereft of quality

Non-separateness; sameness; without distinction.

Not coveting others' goods, not thinking vain thoughts, not brooding over injuries received from others.




Great spiritual teacher.

A mirror—a term sometimes used to denote the finer power of vision developed by the Yogi.


One qualified as a seeker of wisdom.

The infinite, the goddess of the sky.

The Sun.

Twelve planetary spirits.

Absence of virtue; unrighteousness.

Not injuring.

One who does not harm others even by words.

(A-dvaita) Non-dualism. The monistic system of Vedanta philosophy.

A follower of Advaita.

Reflection, as the crystal reflects the colour of the object before it. Superimposition of qualities of one object over another, as of the snake on the rope.

The god of fire. Later, the Supreme God of the Vedas. "I."

"I am Brahman."

Ahamkara Ahara .

Ahimsa . Ahimsaka Ajna .

Amritatvam . Anahata .

Anavasada .

Anima . . Antahkarana

Antaryamin .

Egoism. Self-consciousness.

Gathering in,—as food to support the body or the mind.

Non-injuring in thought, word, or deed.

One who practices Ahimsa.

The sixth lotus of the Yogis, corresponding to a nerve-centre in the brain, behind the eyebrows. Divine perception.

One who has attained divine wisdom.

The all-pervading material of the universe.

Mogul Emperor of India, 1542-1605.


"The undivided Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute."

Objective contemplation. The things which are supports to the mind in its travel Godwards.


lit. "unstruck sound." The fourth lotus of the Yogis in the Susumna, opposite the heard.


Worship of one particular Deity in preference to all others. In a higher sense, it is seeing all Deities as but so many forms of the One God. Singleness of love and worship.

Cheerfulness, not becoming dejected. Strength, both mental and physical.


Internal organ. The mind with its three functions, the cognitive faculty, the determinative faculty, and the egoism.

The name of Isvara,—meaning, He who knows everything that is going on within (antara) every mind.

Antararama .

Anubhava . Anuddharsa. Anumana . Anurakti .

Anuraga . Anuvdda .

Apakshiyate. Apana . .


Aparavidya . .

Aparigraha . .

Apratikalya . .

Aptavakyam .

The Yogz" who rests in the final contemplation of the Supreme Lord (Isvara).


Absence of excessive merriment.


The attachment that comes after the knowledge of the nature of God.

Great attachment to Isvara.

A statement referring to something already known.

To decay.

One of the five manifestations of prana. The nerve-current in the body which governs the organs of excretion.

Super-sensuous perception.

Lower knowledge; knowledge of externals.

Non-receiving of gifts; not indulging in luxuries.

One of the elements; water; liquid.

State of sublime resignation.

One who has attained to realisation of God; one who is self-illumined.

Words of an Apta.


The ancient Rishis, dwellers in the forest; also a name given to the books composed by them.

Portents or signs by which a Yogi can foretell the exact time of his death.


The hero of the Bhagavad Gita, to whom Krishna (in the form of a charioteer) taught the great truths of the Vedanta Philosophy.



(A-rupa) Without form.

Aryavarta .



Athata Brahma-jijnaSa .

Atikranta-Chavaniya .






Avyaktam . Bahya-Bhakti Bandha . .

The land of the Aryans. The name applied by the Hindus to Northern India.

The highest super-conscious state.

Position of the body during meditation.

Non-being or existence. Opposite of Sat. Applied to the changing existence of the universe.


A noted Buddhist King, 259-222 B.C.


lit. "taste,"—applied to the finer faculty of taste developed by the Yogi.


That portion of the Veda which treats of psychic powers.

"Then therefore, the enquiry into Brahman." [Vedanta Sutra, 1—1—I.]

The stage of meditation which ends with what is called "Cloud (or Showerer) of Virtue" Samadhi.

A guest.

The Eternal Self.

Coverings (of the mind).

A divine Incarnation.


"Repetition (of the mental functions of knowing, meditating, etc., is required) on account of the text giving instructions more than once." [Vedanta Sutra, 1-1-IV.]

Indiscrete; undifferentiated. Stage of nature, where there is no manifestation.

External devotion (as worship through rites, symbols, ceremonials, etc., of God).


Bhagavad-Gita . .

Bhagavan . . . Bhagavan Ramakrsna

Bhagavata-Purana Bhakta . . . Bhakti . . . Bhaki-Yoga . . Bharata . .

Bhashya Bhautika Bhavana Bheda . Bhikshu.

Bhoga . Bhoja . . Brahma. . Brahmacharya Brahmacharin

Brahman . Brahmaloka

Brahmana .

(Ficus Indica) Indian fig tree; the branches drop roots to the ground, which grow and form new trunks.

"The Holy Song." A gem of Indian literature containing the essence of the Vedanta Philosophy.

lit. "Possessor of all powers." A title meaning Great Lord.

A great Hindu prophet and teacher of the 19th century, 1835-1886. [See "Life and Sayings of Sri Rama-krsna" by F. Max Müller. London, 1898. Longmans, Green & Co., and Charles Scribner's Sons. New York.]

One of the principal Pur anas.

A great lover of God.

Intense love for God.

Union with the Divine through devotion.

A great Yogi who suffered much from his excessive attachment to a deer which he brought up as a pet.

A commentary.

Pertaining to the Bhutas, or elements.

Pondering; meditation.


A religious mendicant, a term now usually applied to the Buddhist monks.

Enjoyment of sense objects.

The annotator of the Yoga Aphorisms.

The Creator of the Universe.

Chastity in thought, word and deed.

One who has devoted himself to continence and the pursuit of spiritual wisdom.

The One existence, the Absolute.

The world of Brahma, the highest heaven.

A "twice-born man," a Brahmin.

Brahma-Sutra-Bhashya Brahmavadin . .

Chandogya Upanishad


Those portions of the Vedas which state the rules for the employment of the hymns at the various ceremonials. Each of the four Vedas has its own Brahmana.

Commentary on the aphorisms of Vedanta.

Teacher of Brahman, one who speaks or teaches of Brahman or Absolute Being.

The Yoga which leads to the realisation of the Brahman. (Chap. VIII of the Bhagavad Gita is called by that name).

An Anglicised form of Brahmana, a member of the Brahmana caste.

lit. "The Enlightened," the name given to one of the greatest Incarnations recognised by the Hindus, born sixth century B.C.

The determinative faculty.

Pure intelligence. Name of a great Hindu sage (born 1485) who is regarded as a Divine Incarnation.

One of the oldest Upanishads of the Sama-Veda.

A materialist.

The space of knowledge, where the Soul shines in its own nature.

"Mind-stuff." (The fine material out of which the mind has been manufactured)

The mental space.

Offering made to a priest, or teacher, at religious ceremonies.

Control of the organs.


"Servantship;" the state of being a devoted servant of God.

Deha . Devadatta Devas .


Dvesha . . Dyava-Prithivi Ekagra . . Ekam . . Eka-Nistha . Ekanta-Bhakti Ekatma- Vadam

Ekayana .

Mercy, compassion, doing good to others without hope of return.

Matter, gross body.


The "shining ones," semi-divine beings representing states attained by workers of good.

Abode of the gods.

The path which leads to the sphere of the gods, or the different heavens.

One of the Puranas, which describes the deeds of the Divine Mother.

Holding the mind to one thought for twelve seconds. Concentration.

Virtue. Religious duty.

"Cloud of virtue" (applied to a kind of Samadhi).


The way to knowledge through meditation.

Dualities in nature, as heat and cold, pleasure and pain, etc., etc.


Heaven (and) Earth.

Concentrated state of mind.


Intense devotion to one chosen ideals.

Singleness of love and devotion to God.

Monism. The theory, according to which there is only on intelligence Entity. Pure idealism.

The one stay or support of all things,— hence the Lord.

One of the Hindu deities.

God of wisdom and "remover of obstacles." He is always invoked at the commencement of every important undertaking.


Gauni . Gayatri . Ghata . Gopis . Grahama Grihastha Gunas . Guru .

Hamsa . Hanuman Hari .

Hatha Yoga .

Hatha-Yogi (or Yogin) Hiranyagarbha . .


Indra . . . . Indriyani . . . Indriyas . . . Isäna

A woman-sage mentioned in the Upani-shads. She practiced Yoga and attained to the highest super-conscious state.

Preparatory stage of Bhakti-Yoga.

A certain most holy verse of the Vedas.

Shepherdesses, worshippers of Krsna.


A householder, head of a family.

Qualities, attributes.

lit. "the dispeller of darkness." A religious teacher who removes the ignorance of the pupil. The real guru is a transmitter of the spiritual impulse that quickens the spirit and awakens a genuine thirst for religion.

The Jiva, or individual soul.

The great Bhakta hero of the Ramayana.

lit. "One who steals the hearts and reason of all by his beauty," hence the Lord, a name of God.

The science of controlling body and mind, but with no spiritual end in view, bodily perfection being the only aim.

One who practices Hatha Yoga.

lit. "golden wombed." Applied to Brahma, the Creator, as producing the universe out of Himself.

A mystic word used in meditation as symbolic of the highest Bliss.

The nerve current on the left side of the spinal cord; the left nostril.

Ruler of the gods.

Sense organs.

The internal organs of perception.

One of the devas.

Ishtam .

Isvarapranidhana . Isvara Pranidhanadva



Jivatman . Jivan Mukta

Jnana . . Jnana-chaksu



Jnani [or Jnanin]

Chosen ideal (from "ish," to wish). That aspect of God which appeals to one most.

Devotion to one ideal.

The works which bring as reward the enjoyments of the heavens.

The Supreme Ruler; the highest possible conception through reason, of the Absolute, which is beyond all thought.

Meditation on Isvara.

A Sutra of Patanjali—entitled "By worship of the Supreme Lord."


Waking state.


To be born.

The individual soul. The one Self as appearing to be separated into different entities; corresponding to the ordinary use of the word "soul."

The Atman manifesting as the Jiva.

lit. "Living Freedom." One who has attained liberation (Mukti) even while in the body.

Pure intelligence. Knowledge.

One whose vision has been purified by the realisation of the Divine.

The knowledge portion or philosophy of the Vedas.

"Wisdom-Sacrifice." Perfect unselfishness, purity and goodness which lead to Jnana, or supreme wisdom (Moksha).

One who seeks liberation through pure reason or philosophy.

Isolation. Oneness with Absolute Being.


A cycle (in evolution).

Karmakanda Karamendriyas Karma Yoga

Kriya .



Kshana . Kshatriya

Kshetra .

Kshetrajna Kumbhaka



Author of the Sankhya Philsophy, and the father of the Hindu Evolutionists.

Birthplace of Gautama the Buddha.

A running commentary.

Work or action, also effects of actions; the law of cause and effect in the moral world.

The ritualistic portion of the Vedas.

Organs of action.

Union with the Divine through the unselfish performance of duty.

Differentiated, or divided; division.


An Incarnation of God who appeared in India about 1400 B.C. Most of his teachings are embodied in the Bhagavad Gita.

Action, ritual, ceremonial.

The Karma we are making at present.

Preliminary Yoga, the performance of such acts as lead the mind higher and higher.


Member of the warrior (or second) caste of ancient India.

lit. "the perishable," also "a field." Applied to the human body (as the field of action).

The knower of Kshetra. (Gita, Chap. XII.) The soul.

Retention of the breath in the practice of pranayama.

Kundalini .



Madhumati .



Mahat . . Mahattattva.

Mahayoga . Maitriya .

lit. "the coiled-up." The residual energy, located according to the Yogis, at the base of the spine, and which in ordinary men produces dreams, imagination, psychical perceptions, etc., and which, when fully aroused and purified, leads to the direct perception of God.

The mother of the five Pandavas, the heroes who opposed the Kauravas at the battle of Kurukshetra, the account of which forms the principal theme of the Mahabharata, the Indian epic.

The name of a nerve upon which the Yogis meditate.

One of the eighteen principal Pur anas.

A kind of Indian grass used in religious rites.

The second stage of the Yogi when he gets beyond the argumentative condition.

lit. "honeyed." The state when knowledge gives satisfaction as honey does.

Sweet. That form of Bhakti in which the relation of the devotee towards God is like that of a loving wife to her husband.

Commentator of the dualistic school of the Vedanta philosophy.

lit. "The great one." Cosmic intelligence.

Great principle. The ocean of intelligence evolved first from indiscrete nature, according to Sankhya philosophy.

[lit. "great union."] Seeing the Self as one with God.

lit. "Full of compassion." The name of a Hindu sage.

Mantra-drashta . .

Mrtyu Mukti . . . . Müladhara . . . Mumuksutvam . . Mundaka-Upanishad Muni . . . . Nada . . . . Nada-Brahma . .



The deliberative faculty of the mind.

Any prayer, holy verse, sacred or mystic word recited or contemplated during worship.

"Seer of thought." One possessed of super-sensuous knowledge.

lit. "Filled with jewels." The third lotus of the Yogis, opposite the navel (in the Susumna).



Birth-place of Krsna.

Mistaking the unreal and phenomenal for the real and eternal [noumenal?]. Commonly translated "illusion". (lit. "which baffles all measurement.")

lit. "Solution of a problem." One of the six schools of Indian philosophy.

Freedom, liberation (Mukti).

The virtues which lead to liberation of the soul.

Death. Another name for Yama.

Emancipation from rebirth

The basic lotus of the Yogis.

Desire for liberation.

One of the twelve principal Upanishads.

A (religious) sage.

Sound, finer than is heard by our ears.

The "sound-Brahman." The Om, that undifferentiated Word, which has produced all manifestation.

A tube along which something flows— as the blood currents, or nervous energies.

lit. "Purification of the channel through which the nerve currents flow." One of the elementary breathing exercises.

Naisthika .

Narada-Sutra Narayama . Nataraja .

"Neti, Neti". Nimitta . . Niralambana

Nirbija .

Nirguna . . Nishkamakarma.

Nirvichara Nirvikalpa Nirvitarka Nivritti . Nishtha . Niyama .

One possessed of a singleness of devotion towards a high ideal of life.


Name and form.

The power of the name of God.

The great "god-intoxicated" sage of ancient India, who is reputed to have possessed all the "powers" described in Yoga philosophy.

The Aphorisms of Narada on Bhakti.

"Mover on the waters," a title of Vishnu.

lit. "Lord of the stage." Sometimes used for God as the Lord of this vast stage of the universe.

"Not this, not this."

Operative cause.

lit. "Supportless," a very high stage of meditation, according to Yoga philosophy.

lit. "Without seed." The highest form of Samadhi or super-conscious state of the mind according to Yoga philosophy.

Without attributes or qualities.

Unselfish action. To do good acts without caring for the results.

Permanent, eternal.

Science dealing with etymology and the meaning of words.

Freedom: extinction or "blowing out" of delusions.

Without discrimination.


Withou question or reasoning.

"Revolving away from."

Singleness of attachment.

The virtues of cleanliness, contentment, mortification, study and self-surrender.

Nyaya Ojas

Para-Bhakti Paramahamsa Paravidya . Parinamate . Parjanya . Patanjali .

Prajna . . Prajnajyati .

The school of Indian logic. The science of logical philosophy.

lit. "The illuminating or bright." The highest form of energy attained by a constant practice of continence and purity.

The most holy word of the Vedas. A symbolic word, meaning the Supreme Being, the Ocean of Knowledge and Bliss Absolute.

lit. "Om That Existence." That Ocean of Knowledge and Bliss Absolute, the only Reality.




Supreme devotion.

Supreme soul.

Highest knowledge.

To ripen.

God of rain, and of the clouds.

Founder of the Yoga School of Philosophy.

The nerve-current on the right side of the spinal cord; also the right nostril.

A courtesan who abandoned her vicious life and became remarkable for her piety and virtue.

Forefathers, ancestors.

lit. "The chief." The principal element; a name used for nature in Sankya philosophy.

Highest knowledge which leads to the realisation of the Deity.

One who has been illumined with knowledge transcending the senses.

* [This, as far as I can tell, is what the Sanskrit on the scroll on the emblem facing page 51 reads - T.S.]


raja yoga


. . Nature.

Prakrtilayas . .

. . Souls that have got all the powers that

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