Ujjayi Pranayama

Maha mudra is the first of two closely related Kriyas. The second is called maha bheda mudra1. Together they create and release a lot of energy in the physical, pranic and mental bodies.

The krivas that we have already discussed, namely nos. 1-5, are specifically concerned with inducing pratyahara - withdrawing one's awareness of sensory perception of the outside world and the mind. The kriyas from no. 8 onwards are designed to induce dharana, mental one-pointedness. Maha mudra and maha bheda mudra act as stepping stones which simultaneously supercharge the whole system and concentrate the mind. They intensify awareness.

Scriptural references

Maha mudra is mentioned in yoga-tantra scriptures, though the descriptions tend to be either different or inadequate. The Yoga Chudamani Upanishad states: "Maha mudra is a practice which purifies the entire network of nadis (pranic passages), balances ida and pingala and absorbs rasa (nectar of bliss) so that it pervades one's whole being." (v. 65)

"The chin should be pressed against the throat (jalandhara). The left foot should be firmly pressed against the perineum (between the anus and sexual organ). The right foot should be stretched in front and kept firmly on the ground. The two hands should hold the right foot. The breath should then be drawn in to fill the lungs; then it should be slowly exhaled. This is called maha mudra, the destroyer of disease." (v. 66)

This brief description is similar to one method utilized in kriya yoga; a notable difference is that jalandhara bandha is not practised in the maha mudra of kriya yoga. The text continues: "The practice should be done by first of all breathing through the left nostril and then through the right nostril. When the ida and pingala become balanced then the mudra should be released." (v. 67) This is the hatha yoga method of maha mudra which utilizes nadi shodhana pranayama. The kriya yoga method is different, though it brings about the same result - meditation.

The text then describes the benefits of maha mudra: "By the power of this mudra, unwholesome foods can be digested, tasteless foods become tasteful, excess consumption and even poison can be digested by the system and converted into nectar. Various ailments such as tuberculosis, leprosy, indigestion, etc. can be cured and prevented." (v. 68, 69)

"Maha mudra bestows spiritual power and should be kept secret and not divulged to anyone." (v. 70) Maha mudra, both the hatha and kriya yoga forms, have by tradition never been publicly taught. They were always passed on from guru to disciple. It is only in recent years that these techniques have been published in accordance with the needs of the era.

Similar descriptions are given in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika (3: 10-18) and Gherand Samhita (3: 6-8). Here we are only concerned with the kriya yoga form of maha mudra.

Subsidiary practices

In order to practise maha mudra you should be familiar with the following techniques:

1. Ujjayi pranayama2

2. Unmani mudra3

3. Khechari mudra2

4. Shambhavi mudra4

5. Moola bandha5

You should already be familiar with the first three techniques since they are an integral part of the previous kriya practices. Shambhavi mudra (eyebrow gazing) and moola bandha are now being used in the kriyas for the first time, so you should refer back to their previous descriptions.

Note: In maha mudra, moola bandha should be done without jalandhara bandha. That is, you should merely contract the perineum without contracting the throat.

MAHA MUDRA - .ALTERNATIVE 1 Sitting position

The sitting position is siddhasana (for men) or siddha yoni asana (for women). These asanas are practised specifically to apply pressure in the perineum at the mooladhara chakra trigger point6. If you cannot sit in this asana you should practise maha mudra alternative 2 instead.


Sit in siddhasana or siddha yoni asana. Make sure that one heel firmly presses the mooladhara chakra trigger point between the anus and the sexual organ. Hold the spine upright.

Fold your tongue into khechari mudra; maintain it throughout the entire practice. Open the eyes and exhale deeply. Hold your breath. Bend your head forwards. Be aware of the mooladhara chakra and the pressure applied by the heel. The first round starts here. Repeat mentally three times: 'mooladhara, mooladhara, mooladhara'.

Ujjayi Pranayama

Then inhale with ujjayi pranayama and let your awareness ascend through the chakra kshe-trams in the frontal arohan passage (see figure 1).

Swadhisthana, manipura, anahata, vishuddhi, bindu.

There should only be awareness; no mental repetition.

As your awareness moves from vishuddhi to bindu, your head should slowly rise. At bindu inhalation should be terminated and the head should lean slightly backwards (see figure 2). Fix your awareness at bindu. Hold your breath.

Repeat mentally: 'bindu - bindu - bindu' then practise moola bandha and shambhavi mudra while continuing to hold the breath. Say mentally: 'shambhavi - khechari - mool' while moving your awareness through the centres of these practices (see figure 3).

When you say 'shambhavi' your awareness should be fixed at the eyebrow centre.

When you say 'khechari' your awareness should be fixed at the tongue and roof of the mouth.

When you say 'mool' your awareness should be fixed at the mooladhara chakra.

The rotation of awareness through shambhavi, khechari and mool should be done 3 times in the beginning; with practice this should be slowly increased to 12 times over a period of a few months or so. Then release shambhavi mudra. Release moola bandha. Become aware of the bindu again. Then exhale with ujjayi pranayama and let your awareness descend through the chakra trigger points in the spinal awarohan passage: ajna. vishuddhi, anahata, manipura, swad-histhana' (see figure 4).

There should only be awareness; no mental repetition.

As your awareness descends do unmani mudra.

When your awareness reaches the mooladhara chakra. exhalation should terminate and your head should gently bend forwards. Open your eyes. This is the end of 1 round. The whole process is summarized in the accompanying pictures. Now start the second round.

Hold the breath.

While fixing awareness at the mooladhara chakra mentally repeat: 'mooladhara - mool-adhara - mooladhara'.

Then let your awareness ascend the frontal passage as already described. Repeat 12 rounds. Do not strain.

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  • anniina viinikka
    How to do Ujjayi Pranayama?
    5 years ago

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