Normal breathing is characterized by active contraction of only the inspiratory muscles, such as the diaphragm and the external intercostals; expiration occurs passively on the cessation of this contraction of the internal intercostals. Kapalbhati reverses this process: exhalation is active and inhalation is passive. This induces a reversal in the flow of the nerve impulses to and from the brain, bringing about stimulation and awakening of the brain centres. This is one reason for the brain-stimulating effect of kapalbhati, at least on a physiological basis. It should be noted that the expiratory muscles usually only come into action when there is obstruction to respiration, or when there is a great need of extra oxygen in the system.
1 Book I, Lesson 1, Topic 2
2 Book III, Lesson 27, Topic 4
3 Book I, Lesson 4, Topic 5
4 Book I, Lesson 2, Topic 5 and Book I, Lesson 7; Topic 2
5 Book II, Lesson 14, Topic 3
6 Book II, Lesson 18, Topic 3 ' Book II, Lesson 19, Topic 4 8 Book II, Lesson 22, Topic 4
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